Adapted from Munasinghe The environment is considered here as a production factor. Changes in environmental quality lead to changes in productivity and production costs which in turn lead to changes in prices and outputs.
The Mangshan pit viper has suffered severe losses as a result of habitat destruction and overexploitation for food, trade and medicinal purposes, and its population now stands at only about individuals. Captive breeding programmes have been established to boost the Mangshan pit viper population, and its listing on Appendix II of CITES should go some way to help control commercial trade in this species.
A strikingly coloured species, the Mangshan pit viper is a large, yellow-green to dark green snake marked with large brown blotches thinly outlined in black, with variable white markings on the lower jaw and sides of body.
This large but cryptic species was first described by science as recently as This species can grow up to two metres in length, and is thought to be one of the heaviest venomous snakes in the world.
An ambush predator which feeds on birds and mammals, the Mangshan pit viper can often be found along trails used by rodents, where it will strike its victims and inject potent venom from its long, tube-like fangs.
Threats Unfortunately for this stunning snake, the combination of over-exploitation, illegal trade and habitat destruction within its range has led to a dramatic decline in its population size.
Illegal hunting or collection of the Mangshan pit viper for food, trade or medicinal purposes is currently considered to be the major threat to this species. Its unique beauty combined with its size, colouration and rarity demands a high value on the black market, primarily within China.
Given its small population size, the Mangshan pit viper is also highly vulnerable to extreme weather events such as exceptionally cold spells which can lead to mortality.
Conservation To ensure a positive future for the Mangshan pit viper, conservationists are calling for enhanced patrolling and stricter law enforcement in the two nature reserves in which the species occurs. Sincethe Mangshan pit viper has been listed under CITES Appendix II which should help control international commercial trade in this beautiful and unique reptile.
Such measures will go some way to reducing habitat destruction and illegal harvesting activities, and in so doing will also benefit other rare species in the region, such as the horned pit viper Protobothrops cornutus and the big-headed turtle Platysternon megacephalum.
Captive breeding of the Mangshan pit viper began inand since then has produced over young, most of which have been released into the wild. This species lays a clutch of up to 27 eggs and has the potential for producing high numbers in captivity to augment a dwindling wild population.
With the help of zoos in the future, further captive-bred individuals could be reintroduced to their native habitat, boosting wild populations and ensuring the future survival of the Mangshan pit viper. Find out more about the Mangshan pit viper and its conservation.Ten Species on the Road to Recovery.
From saving the world’s most threatened species of sea turtle to bringing unusual amphibians back from the brink of extinction, no conservation challenge is a lost cause if knowledge, dedication and strong partnerships are put into play.
Fukuoka | Japan Fukuoka | Japan. Chapter 5. Conclusion. The need to value environment. Until recently environmental issue has been largely ignored in conventional economic analysis and decision-making, whose main objective has generally focused on profit maximization.
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