New Investors Threaten Mezz Security. Factors that tempted investors to penetrate the market; Difficulties faced by collaterized loan obligation managers to get hold of mezzanine papers; Result of the ongoing entrance of new liquidity in convergence
What makes people move has been the subject of different theoretical frameworks that have looked at the causes of migration from economic, socio-political, and sociological-anthropological perspectives Arango ; De Haan Economically-driven explanations regard migration as a consequence of an uneven geographical distribution of labour and capital.
This motivates workers to go from countries or regions where labour is abundant and wages low, to labour-scarce countries where wages are high.
The result is a re-distribution of labour and the eventual equalisation of wages between countries, inducing migratory flows to stop. The decision to migrate is therefore made rationally, voluntary and by choice either by individuals or as a household Arango But, although differences in economic opportunities are important reasons for migration, they only paint a partial picture.
Another way to explain migration is by including a socio-political perspective. This domination first occured because of colonisation and now it is shaped by the power of transnational corporations and foreign direct investment.
Migration therefore leads to more inequality instead of convergence between countries Castles The decision to migrate is not about choice, it is a strategy for survival De Haan ; Sassen Although these theories provide insights into how inequality between developed and developing countries is created and maintained and how this inequality triggers migration, some argue that they do not explain why migratory flows and paths happen in such diverse ways Arango Sociological and anthropological explanations incorporate a range of interrelated factors to assess why and how migration flows are constructed.
There are many causes and reasons for migration; to focus on just one particular set is bound to provide an incomplete account Arango Considerations such as individual circumstances, social contexts, gender analysis, government policies and the importance of social networks all impact whether and how migration takes shape.
In particular the idea of social networks seems to provide useful insights into migratory flows: In the past the study of labour migration has been critiqued for not being linked to the study of development Pottsbut in recent years the relationship between migration and development has appeared on many international agendas: Migration and Development The way migration links into development strategies is through remittances; the money migrants send back home.
For developing countries, remittances are a crucial source of national income and foreign exchange. In the Phillippines, as in China and Bangladesh, where emigration is actively promoted, remittances represent about a third of foreign exchange Sassen But not only unskilled workers emigrate.
Millions of highly educated and skilled people move from countries where human capital is relatively scarce De Haas International migration geographically separates the process and cost of maintenance and renewal with the sending country bearing the often higher cost for renewal and the receiving country bearing and often intentionally minimalising the lower cost for maintenance.
As was the case in pre-colonial and colonial times, people whose labour can advance the development of African economies and societies are being moved, this time forced by lack of opportunities, to contribute to capital accummulation elsewhere Thomson ; see also Bond Does everyone benefit from remittances?
What happens to those who stay behind? Those who do or cannot move are most likely or will become the chronically poor.
Migration can thus in effect cause or exacerbate poverty Kothari ; De Haas ; Taylor Migration is not only associated with financial contributions, but to social and cultural contributions as well, predominantly in creating greater equality between men and women De Haan Women who migrate can achieve more independence and are increasingly becoming autonomous economic agents Zlotnik in Castels ; DFID Female migration has risen sharply in the last decades De Haan ; Adepoju ; Crush and Williams But, to conclude that an increase in female migration results in increased participation is problematic Pearson in Allen and Thomas ; De Haan ; Adepoju ; Kothari The increase cannot be separated from the equally growing feminisation of poverty and labour.4 MIneral royaltIes anD other MInIng-speCIfIC taxes MIneral taxes Mineral royalty and tax types and their characteristics As special taxes for the mining sector are, in principle, directed at.
The securitization markets supported by the shadow banking system started to close down in the spring of and nearly shut-down in the fall of More than a third of the private credit markets thus became unavailable as a source of funds. . In the USA Securitisation of residential mortgages is the mother of all securitizations and is in the form of Residential mortgage-backed securities (RMBS) which generally pass through securities or bonds based on cash flows from residential home loans, as opposed to commercial real estate loans.
Abstract. The political and economic debacle in Zimbabwe has led to a large-scale influx of Zimbabweans into neighbouring South Africa. This article argues that there is a complex and significant link between the domestic response to this immigration influx and South Africa’s foreign policy towards Zimbabwe.
Zimbabwe’s electoral body has reportedly said that it would not be pressured into disclosing who the suppliers of ballot papers for this year’s crunch elections are. According to NewsDay, the Zimbabwe Electoral Commission (ZEC) said that there was no law compelling it to involve political parties in its procurement deals.
Outsourcing brings in a lot of flexibility and financial freedom but it also has its pitfalls. Any company looking to outsource must keep in mind the pros and cons of outsourcing .