Second of a two-course sequence Core Courses The MBA degree requires completion of a common set of six core courses including the capstone course in strategic management, and an additional two directed electives BUS level or higher chosen with the approval of the faculty advisor. These required courses are designed to prepare the student to respond to the complex business decisions that arise in today's rapidly changing environment. Includes competitive markets and market failure, benefit-cost analysis, demand estimation and forecasting, decision-making under risk and uncertainty, production and cost estimation, and market structure analysis. Covers cost-volume-profit relationships, flexible budgets and standards, job order and process cost, and cost allocation and accumulation.
British experiences in post- war Germany,highlight some general principles which are relevant today: Let us now win the peace. There is a limit to how much preparation can be done in advance because it is impossible to predict actual circumstances on the ground. Therefore military commanders and civilian authorities need to respond flexibly in light of what they encounter.
Democracy cannot be imposed by force or by totalitarian means.
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If political structures are to last beyond the occupation, they have to be created by local political leaders and accepted by the population as a whole.
Personal relationships between occupier and occupied are important. Reconciliation does not happen automatically, but requires a conscious effort on both sides.
It was originally intended that the country would be governed as a single entity by central German administrations, in accordance with decisions made by the four Allies acting jointly through the Allied Control Council in Berlin, but in practice each of the Allies ran their zone more or less independently for the first two years of the occupation.
It was not untilfour years after the end of the war, that the three western zones formally joined together to form the Federal Republic of West Germany, and the Soviet zone became the German Democratic Republic East Germany.
This policy paper examines the situation in the British zone, between and Many of the conclusions appear to be equally valid for the US and French zones, although the detailed situation, policies pursued and timescales varied in each zone.
In the east, the German Democratic Republic was to prove a loyal ally of the Soviet Union for over 40 years until the fall of the Berlin Wall in and become, in the meantime, relatively affluent compared to other members of the Soviet bloc. Politically and diplomatically, Germany was de-nazified, disarmed as an independent military force and the Western and Eastern parts firmly anchored within the NATO and Warsaw Pact alliances.
Success, however, was not a foregone conclusion. A superficial understanding of Allied policies and actions and the German response may create unjustified complacency that once victory is achieved and dictatorial regimes removed from power, sufficient financial investment and the adoption of free market economic policies will be enough to create stable and prosperous democracies.
The difficult period of transition, between the end of the war in Europe in May and the creation of an independent Federal Republic of Germany ininvolved hard choices.
Governing the British zone of occupied Germany offers relevant lessons for contemporary operations.
The situation in Germany in In May Germany was in chaos. The economy was at a standstill and no central government remained to implement instructions issued by the Allies. Millions of people were homeless, or attempting to return to homes that no longer existed.
Ivone Kirkpatrick, later appointed head of the German Department and subsequently Permanent Under-Secretary at the Foreign Office, described his first impressions of Germany in Field-Marshal Montgomery, appointed Commander-in-Chief and Military Governor of the British zone of occupation on 22 Maylater recalled the immediate problems they faced: Writing in Januaryhis deputy, General Brian Robertson, described the first phase of the occupation, immediately before and after the German unconditional surrender in May The directives were not many, and much was left to the initiative of individuals … the detachments entered into a land of desolation and bewilderment.
Government above the level of the parish council had ceased. Faced with problems which appeared alarmingly similar to those their predecessors had faced only 25 years earlier, Montgomery, Robertson and their colleagues tried to avoid the mistakes they believed had been made then.
The lessons they drew from the failure to secure a lasting peace after the First World War, were not only that Germany should be completely demilitarised and its industries controlled to prevent future re-armament, but that law and order had to be restored, steps taken to prevent epidemics of disease, and economic activity re-started, to try to prevent the unemployment and social unrest which had, they believed, contributed to the rise of extreme political parties and the Nazi seizure of power in The resources available under his direct command were the army and the civilian Control Commission, which had been established in the final year of the war and transferred to Germany in July and August As early as Julyless than three months after the end of the war, he issued a new draft directive to British army commanders and Control Commission heads of division, finalised on 10 September Unlike earlier wartime directives, the new directive identified steps to be taken to reconstruct German economic and political life, address shortages of food, fuel and housing, improve transport facilities, re-open schools, permit freedom of assembly, licence political parties and prepare for future elections.
British army engineers restored much of the transport infrastructure and the economy started to revive, but severe shortages of labour and raw materials meant that production remained at very low levels.
Despite widespread concern over incidents of TB, Hunger Oedema and other diseases, there were no serious epidemics in post-war Germany.A wonderful idea and a project with a future. And it's a very good example to show that almost every project requires additional funding capabilities.
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This report identifies Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as a demanding topic which takes into deep understanding of CSR by depicting a road map of core subjects with related issues and implementation based on the principles of CSR and discusses briefly on its characteristics; pros and cons; theories and approaches; justifications and fundamental principles.
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