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ABSTRACT Asthma prevalence in the United States and the world has been increasing, affecting millions including children 0 - 17 years old and causing thousands of deaths every year at a societal cost of over billions of dollars.
Further, it has been documented that asthma morbidity responds to socioeconomic variations. This study evaluates the relationship between asthma and five air pollutants along with socioeconomic status in Texas counties from to Exploratory and spatial analyses produced consistent results.
Asthma prevalence was positively associated with PM2.
Asthma childhood prevalence rates were positively associated with living in a household with a female head and negatively associated with ethnicity: Caucasian, Hispanic, and African American. Adult prevalence rates were positively associated with living in a household with female head, being on food stamps, and PM2.
Both the overall and adult rates were positively associated with poverty. Asthma hospitalizations in Texas were positively associated with aerosol particles, sulfur dioxide, and low income. Moreover, the majority of air pollution in Texas is formed by stationary sources, which contradicts recent claims that mobile sources are the main emitters in Texas.
Our findings are consistent with those from other geographical locations and suggest that Local air pollutants in dallas texas studies and measures are required to fully explain the associations detected and underlying cause and effect paradigm.
Introduction Asthma prevalence in the United States and the world has been increasing, affecting more than 26 million in the US, including 7 million children 0 - 17 years old and is associated with asthma attributed death rate of more than deaths every year .
Asthma is a chronic disease affecting air passages of the lungs. It is the most common childhood disease in developed countries . The most substantial risk factors are environmental allergens and exposure to chemicals and particles which trigger allergic reactions and irritate the airways.
The majority of asthma-related mortality occurs in lower income countries  . Research on environmental effects on asthma has demonstrated strong associations between asthma presentation and concentrations of criteria air pollutants: Asthma symptoms include coughing, wheezing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath.
These affect quality of life and work or school productivity. Its societal burden includes these consequences as well as health care burden and mortality.
Furthermore, because air pollutants levels decrease with increased distance to source, the majority of studies on its health effects have small scale which limits our understanding of the spatial variations of its impact at a regional level.
Moreover, studies focusing on the impact of socioeconomic status SES on asthma have demonstrated varying degrees of associations with factors like income, college education attainment, and living in urban or rural areas. These associations varied with demographic factors such as age and ethnicity    .
The effect of SES on asthma morbidity and mortality is attributed to factors such as living conditions, working environment, proximity to air pollutant discharge, and psychosomatic stress  . There remain many unanswered questions regarding environmental exposure, SES, and asthma prevalence.
Specifically, not all geographical locations have been fully characterized and the datasets have yet to be fully analyzed to present a comprehensive understanding regarding all possible interactions and sequela associated with asthma.
This shortcoming hampers our ability for identifying and proposing alternative solutions to this intricate health problem. The objective of this study was to assess the association between asthma and both air pollutants and socioeconomic factors in Texas, from to Because of the importance of the effect of air pollutants and SES, these factors needed to be fully characterized for the different settings where local and global factors vary between locations.
Ordinary kriging spatially estimates measurements while minimizing error variance . Socioeconomic status variables were the percentage without college education, percentage of households with female head, percentage living in poverty all ages poverty indexpercentage of population with Native origins, percentage of population of Asian origins, percentage of population who is African American, percentage of population of Hispanic origins, percentage of Caucasian population, percentage of population living within half a mile of a park, percentage of households with severe housing problems, and percentage of population living in urban-rural area.
These were collected from the U. Census website  for the same years. Repeated measures t-test was used to test the null hypothesis of non-changing means between the years. Pearson pair-wise correlations were calculated to test for collinearity between the independent variables.
For multivariate multiple linear regression analysis, the following regression equation was used: Variables included in the regression model: Moran I, which is an indicator of spatial dependence, was calculated as a measure of spatial differences between the variables.
Kriging was used to interpolate annual average estimates of PM2.
The multivariate spatial regression lag model employed was: The Weights matrix stores all the pairwise spatial relationships in the dataset . Linear and spatial analyses were conducted at the significance level of 0. Descriptive Analyses Figure 1 presents the total number of asthma hospitalizations in Texas from to Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment into the timberdesignmag.com since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the United States, America has had much trouble with environmental issues, air pollution in particular.
Pollution data. Daily average concentrations were estimated for the pollutants O 3, PM 10, PM , SO 2, NO 2, and CO for each county for the years –Data were obtained from the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency Air Quality System ().
PBW Air Pollution Control Services ‐ Verification and Inspection City acts as local agent of TCEQ to review facility requirements and enforce air quality rules Verify air permits and registrations, and inspect facilities that have the potential to emit pollutants 1, facilities on record in 7.
The American Lung Association’s “State of the Air” report found that while both the Dallas and Houston area earned failing grades for the three most common forms of hazardous air pollution, Dallas’ air quality levels are improving and Houston’s is declining.
Beaumont (/ ˈ b oʊ m ɒ n t / BOH-mont) is a city in and the county seat of Jefferson County, Texas in the United States, within the Beaumont–Port Arthur Metropolitan Statistical timberdesignmag.comd in Southeast Texas on the Neches River about 90 mi ( km) east of Houston (city center to city center), Beaumont had a population of , at the time of the census, making it the twenty.
Downwinders and its partners in the DFW Air Research Consortium are nominated for the Environmental Science and Innovation Award for building the North Texas Clean Air Network – the first local, independent regional air monitoring network in the state.