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The purpose of this paper is to examine this phenomenon empirically.
More specifically, the study investigates what kinds of autobiographical episodes are triggered by music that respondents self-selected as examples of this phenomenon, what characterizes these instances, and what is the relationship between the emotions descriptive Define autobiographical essay the original experience and the emotions aroused by hearing the piece of music.
And before Swann had had time to understand what was happening, to think: In order to elucidate the issues involved and to set the stage for the main focus of this paper, it might be helpful to briefly discuss two distinctions.
The first distinction is between what Pratt calls Define autobiographical essay and heteronomous music. Adherents of the view that music is or should be autonomous argue that the "essence of music lies wholly within the borders of sound" Prattp.
Those who regard music as heteronomous, on the other hand, argue that music possesses "content which is non-tonal" Prattp.
Drawing on the work of Charles Peirce, Dowling and HarwoodChapter 8in their discussion of the relationship between music and emotion, make a similar distinction between iconic and indexical representation in music, where iconic representation of emotions refers to "patterns within the music itself Proponents of musical emotivism argue that music arouses or induces emotions e.
While the distinction between musical emotivism and musical cognitivism centers on whether music actually induces or merely represents emotions, the difference between autonomous and heteronomous music refers to whether music per se or extramusical objects or events associated with the music induce or represent emotions.
It is possible to arrange the concepts of autonomous vs. The topic of interest in the present paper is heteronomous music which arouses emotions, or the indexical induction of emotions cf. Dowling and Harwoodp. The excerpt from Swann's Way by Marcel Proust quoted at the beginning is a well-known literary example of this phenomenon.
Most readers, however, will probably have had a similar experience in which a piece of music conjured up images of some past autobiographical episode. Writers on musical aesthetics, even those in the cognitivist camp, generally agree that a piece of music may acquire the capacity to arouse emotional reactions through association with significant personal experiences, but the expressiveness of music, it is argued, is then due to an accident of association and has or may have nothing to do with the "real expressive character of the music" Kivyp.
For example, a happy piece of music could come to arouse sadness because of its association with a sad event. Furthermore, if expressiveness in music is a consequence of its indexical function, music is stripped of any special status as the language of emotion because any other object a photo, a gift, even a smell could also become associated with a significant personal experience and thus induce emotional reactions.
Although it is quite understandable why aestheticians would not get too excited about instances in which idiosyncratic associations endow music with emotive meaning, it nonetheless seems an interesting question to investigate this phenomenon empirically.
The study reported below was designed as an initial examination of some of the issues involved. Specifically, the objectives of the study were 1 to assess how readily people can bring to mind personal experiences that have become associated with a piece of music, 2 to explore what characterizes these autobiographical episodes, the music that triggers them, and the instances in which the phenomenon occurs, and 3 to examine the relationship between the emotions descriptive of the original experience and the emotions aroused by hearing the piece of music.
METHOD Subjects Seventy-three undergraduate marketing majors 43 males, 30 females participated in the study as part of a course requirement. The data were collected in one minute session in which other experimental tasks unrelated to the present study were also administered.
Participants were run in groups of at most 8 people in 12 experimental sessions. Procedure and Measures Subjects received a questionnaire and were told to complete it at their own pace. On top of the first page they were given the following instructions: Please take a minute and think about instances in which this has happened to you.
Select the instance that is most salient in your mind and briefly describe the piece of music and the personal experience that the music reminds you of every time you hear it. The coefficient alphas of the two sets of measures were 0.
Subjects were then asked approximately how long ago the personal experience recalled had originally occurred, how vivid the recollections of the personal experience brought about by the piece of music were seven-point scale from 'not at all vivid' to 'extremely vivid'how emotional the recollections were when they occurred seven-point scale from 'not at all emotional' to 'extremely emotional'to what extent they relived the original experience when they heard the piece of music seven-point scale from 'not at all' to 'a great extent' and to what extent the recollections were accompanied by imagery visual images, sounds, smells, etc.
Finally, an attempt was made to capture in more detail the affective qualities characteristic of the original personal experience and the emotional tone descriptive of the piece of music associated with it.
The question, however, was which instrument to use for the measurement of emotions cf.An essay has been defined in a variety of ways. One definition is a "prose composition with a focused subject of discussion" or a "long, systematic discourse".
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New Criticism. A literary movement that started in the late s and s and originated in reaction to traditional criticism that new critics saw as largely concerned with matters extraneous to the text, e.g., with the biography or psychology of the author or the work's relationship to literary history. An autobiography (from the Greek, αὐτός-autos self + βίος-bios life + γράφειν-graphein to write) is a self-written account of the life of oneself. Despite only being named early in the nineteenth century, first-person autobiographical writing originates in antiquity. Affordable Papers is an online writing service which has helped students from the UK, US, and Europe for more than 10 years. Our great experience enables us to provide papers of the best quality. The main secrets of our good reputation are trustful relationships with customers and talented academic writers who always create first-chop papers from scratch.
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