An introduction to the various theories of power

These words were popularized in English by the Scottish surgeon James Braid to whom they are sometimes wrongly attributed around Braid based his practice on that developed by Franz Mesmer and his followers which was called "Mesmerism" or " animal magnetism "but differed in his theory as to how the procedure worked.

An introduction to the various theories of power

Coercive control Coercive power is the application of negative influences. It includes the ability to demote or to withhold other rewards. The desire for valued rewards or the fear of having them withheld that ensures the obedience of those under power. Coercive power tends to be the most obvious but least effective form of power as it builds resentment and resistance from the people who experience it.

Threats and punishment are common tools of coercion. Implying or threatening that someone will be fired, demoted, denied privileges, or given undesirable assignments — these are characteristics of using coercive power.

Extensive use of coercive power is rarely appropriate in an organizational setting, and relying on these forms of power alone will result in a very cold, impoverished style of leadership. Andersen in "Close encounters: Power is a perception in a sense that some people can have objective power, but still have trouble influencing others.

People who use power cues and act powerfully and proactively tend to be perceived as powerful by others. Power as a Relational Concept: Power exists in relationships. Partners in close and satisfying relationships often influence each other at different times in various arenas.

Power as Resource Based: Power usually represents a struggle over resources. The more scarce and valued resources are, the more intense and protracted are power struggles. The scarcity hypothesis indicates that people have the most power when the resources they possess are hard to come by or are in high demand.

The person with less to lose has greater power in the relationship. Dependence power indicates that those who are dependent on their relationship or partner are less powerful, especially if they know their partner is uncommitted and might leave them. According to interdependence theory, quality of alternatives refers to the types of relationships and opportunities people could have if they were not in their current relationship.

The principle of least interest suggests that if a difference exists in the intensity of positive feelings between partners, the partner who feels the most positive is at a power disadvantage.

Power as Enabling or Disabling: Power can be enabling or disabling. Research[ citation needed ] has been shown that people are more likely to have an enduring influence on others when they engage in dominant behavior that reflects social skill rather than intimidation.

People who communicate through self-confidence and expressive, composed behavior tend to be successful in achieving their goals and maintaining good relationships.

An introduction to the various theories of power

Power can be disabling when it leads to destructive patterns of communication. This can lead to the chilling effect where the less powerful person often hesitates to communicate dissatisfaction, and the demand withdrawal pattern which is when one person makes demands and the other becomes defensive and withdraws mawasha, Both effects have negative consequences for relational satisfaction.

Power as a Prerogative: The prerogative principle states that the partner with more power can make and break the rules.

Powerful people can violate norms, break relational rules, and manage interactions without as much penalty as powerless people. In addition, the more powerful person has the prerogative to manage both verbal and nonverbal interactions.

They can initiate conversations, change topics, interrupt others, initiate touch, and end discussions more easily than less powerful people.

See expressions of dominance. Rational choice framework[ edit ] Game theorywith its foundations in the Walrasian theory of rational choiceis increasingly used in various disciplines to help analyze power relationships. One rational choice definition of power is given by Keith Dowding in his book Power.A Brief Introduction to Theories on International Relations and Foreign Policy.

POLI One of the key questions in international relations and foreign policy is the question of how you examine state behavior. The key variable in the international system is the power of a state within the system.

Some states are powerful;. MEDIA THEORIES:Libertarian Theory, Social Responsibility Theory Introduction to Mass Communication Mass Communication.

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Referent power is the power or ability of individuals to attract others and build is based on the charisma and interpersonal skills of the power holder.

A person may be admired because of specific personal trait, and this admiration creates the opportunity for interpersonal influence. Expanding Your View. Up to now, your introduction to organizational communication has been fairly straightforward.

The definition of an “organization” presented in Chapter 1 "Introduction to Organizational Communication" emphasized aspects of the workplace that you probably expected—structure, goals, personnel, etc., and the definition of “communication” featured elements .

TO TRULY UNDERSTAND LEADERSHIP, KNOW ITS BROAD CONTEXT. It helps to be acquainted with the different major theories because it helps you to see leadership from a variety of different perspectives and, thus, to deepen and enrich your understanding of leadership in general.

Basics and Overviews. Information is no longer a staff function but an operational one. It is deadly as well as useful Executive Summary, Air Force report Research, Writing, and the Mind of the Strategist, by Foster, in Joint Force Quarterly.

50 Cyber Questions Every Airman Can Answer (), by Jabbour, AFRL Information Operations Primer, US Army War College.

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