Europe, to The term Reformation refers in general to the major religious changes that swept across Europe during the s, transforming worship, politics, society, and basic cultural patterns.
Humanism Definition Humanism can be defined as "an outlook that emphasizes human capabilities and concerns".
This outlook has two key implications. Firstly, humanism asserts the importance of secular matters. During the Middle Ages, scholars focused primarily on sacred matters the Bible and theologywhile giving little heed to secular matters those concerning human beings and the human world.
Secular matters include science, social science, and human-focused philosophy and art. By assigning value to these subjects, humanism affirms the worth and dignity of human beings, thus contrasting sharply with medieval proclamations of humanity as inherently base and sinful.
A society that values critical thought features a rich diversity of ideas, as opposed to a unanimous view based on tradition, creed, or propaganda. The Western Inheritance Throughout history, the growth of humanism was sharply limited in most societies. Humanism emerged to a much larger, more vigorous degree in ancient Greece than anywhere else, such that society was thoroughly transformed; this unique historical development is sometimes known as the "Greek Awakening" or "Greek Miracle" see Greek Awakening.
Humanism was the engine that propelled the Greeks to unprecedented innovation in such fields as science, mathematics, government, and art.
During the Middle Ages, human-focused scholarship and art languished, and critical thought was often brutally suppressed. Humanism was finally reawakened by the scholars of the Renaissance, and thereby inherited from ancient Greece by the modern West.
This priceless inheritance finally allowed Europe and its colonial offshoots to continue down the intellectual trails blazed by the ancients see Enlightenment.
Another key element was the rise of the middle class, which possessed the time and wealth to become literate and pursue scholarly activities.
Throughout the Middle Ages, literacy and therefore all written knowledge had been largely monopolized by the clergy, thus limiting the ability of the general population to create and spread alternative ideas. It should be noted that the term "humanism" is often used to specifically denote the revival of humanism by Renaissance scholars.
The foundation of this revival was a return to the study of classical literature, which is replete with humanist values including critical thought and attention to secular matters.
Despite a newfound appreciation for secular subjects, humanist thinkers generally remained devoted to religion, and many continued to study the Bible and theology extensively. Humanism did not entail the discarding of these subjects, but rather the addition of human concerns to the scholarly menu.Printing was to hasten the Reformation, and the Reformation in turn was to spread printing further.
In secular matters the opposition between church and state was centuries old, but it had begun to take a new turn with the building of strong nations.
In fact the first attempt to use the benefits of the printing press as new medium to arouse widespread mass support was not in connection with Italian humanism but with a late medieval crusade, which was the war against the Turks. Gutenberg’s effects on universities.
This is the single biggest change in education since the printing press’.2 Similar views have been expressed by several others,3 often in apocalyptic terms: ‘An avalanche is coming’,4 ‘The campus tsunami’,5 ‘tectonic shift’,6 ‘The end of the university as we know it’,7 ‘disruptive 1.
Development of Printing technology Europeans borrowed the idea of printing technology from Chinese timberdesignmag.com first printing press and printed copies of the Bible in Women had no say in business matters though their dowries were invested in family business.
Johann Gutenberg of Mainz, Germany printed the first complete edition of the Bible using the fist printing press and inks in which started the beginning of the printing revolution Printed books became more readily available because they were easier to produce and cheaper to make.
Feb 13, · The printing press changed how information was spread throughout the world. It allowed for books to be printed faster, cheaper, and with more efficiency.
The first books printed by the printed press where bibles.